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Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Approximately 90% of people with high blood pressure have “essential” or “idiopathic” hypertension, the cause of which is poorly understood. As used here, the terms “hypertension” and “high blood pressure” refer only to this most common form and not to high blood pressure either associated with pregnancy or clearly linked to known causes such as Cushing’s syndrome, pheochromocytoma, or kidney disease.
Hypertension Prevention and Options
Despite reports suggesting short-term blood-pressure-raising effects resulting from caffeine ingestion, a few studies have claimed that long-term coffee drinkers have lower blood pressure than those who avoid coffee.7, 8 The consequences of long-term caffeine avoidance on blood pressure remain unclear. Significant amounts of caffeine are found in regular coffee, black and green tea, chocolate, some soft drinks, and some medications.
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4. Rachima-Maoz C, Peleg E, Rosenthal T. The effect of caffeine on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 1998;11:1426–32.
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6. Hodgson JM, Buddey IB, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. J Hypertens 1999;17:457–63.
7. Wakabayashi K, Kono S, Shinchi K, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: a study of self-defense officials in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 1998;14:669–73.
8. Salvaggio A, Periti M, Miano L, et al. Association between habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure levels. J Hypertens 1990;8:585–90.
9. Cappuccio FP, Elliott P, Allender PS, et al. Epidemiologic association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of published data. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:935–45.
10. Gavras I, Manolis A, Gavras H. Genetic epidemiology of essential hypertension. Hypertens 1999;13:225–9 [review].
11. Ward R. Familial aggregation and genetic epidemiology of blood pressure. In Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Laragh JH, Brenner BM (eds.), New York, NY: Raven Press; 1990:81–100 [review].
12. Alberti KG. Impaired glucose tolerance: what are the clinical implications? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1998;40:S3–8 [review].
13. Corry DB, Tuck ML. Glucose and insulin metabolism in hypertension. Am J Nephrol 1996;16:223–6 [review].
14. Ferrannini E, Santoro D, Manicardi V. The association of essential hypertension and diabetes. Compr Ther 1989;15:51–8 [review].
15. Mizushima S, Cappuccio FP, Nichols R, et al. Dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure: a qualitative overview of the observational studies. J Hum Hypertens 1998;12:447–53.
16. Sacks FM, Appel LJ, Moore TJ, et al. A dietary approach to prevent hypertension: a review of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Study. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(7 Suppl):III6–10 [review].
17. Shaper AG. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Ciba Found Symp 1996;201:90–103[review].
18. Pouliot MC, Després JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:460–8.
19. Stevens VJ, Corrigan SA, Obarzanek E, et al. Weight loss intervention in phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. The TOHP Collaborative Research Group. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:849–58.
20. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:657–67.
21. Stamler J, Caggiula AW, Grandits GA. Relation of body mass and alcohol, nutrient, fiber, and caffeine intakes to blood pressure in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:338S–65S.
22. Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA 1997;277:1624–32.
23. Burgess E, Lewanczuk R, Bolli P, et al. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 6. Recommendations on potassium, magnesium and calcium. CMAJ 1999;160(9 Suppl):S35–45.
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25. Stamler J. The INTERSALT Study: background, methods, findings, and implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:626S–42S [review].
26. MacGregor GA, et al. Double-blind study of three sodium intakes and long-term effects of sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1989;ii:1244–7.
27. Weinberger MH. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure in humans. Hypertension 1996;27:481–90.
28. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:657–67.
29. Blair SN, Goodyear NN, Gibbons LW, et al. Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension in healthy normotensive men and women. JAMA 1984;252:487–90.
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32. Markovitz JH, Matthews KA, Kannel WB, et al. Psychological predictors of hypertension in the Framingham Study. JAMA 1993;270:2439–43.
33. Markovitz JH, Matthews KA, Wing RR, et al. Psychological, biological and health behavior predictors of blood pressure changes in middle-aged women. J Hypertens 1991;9:399–406.
34. Schnall PL, Schwartz JE, Landsbergis PA, et al. Relation between job strain, alcohol, and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 1992;19:488–94.
35. Matthews KA, Cottington EM, Talbott E, et al. Stressful work conditions and diastolic blood pressure among blue collar factory workers. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126:280–91.
36. Perini C, Müller FB, Bühler FR. Suppressed aggression accelerates early development of essential hypertension. J Hypertension 1991;9:499–503.
37. Beilin LJ, Burke V. Vegetarian diet components, protein and blood pressure: which nutrients are important? Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1995;22:195–8.
38. Sacks FM, Appel LJ, Moore TJ, et al. A dietary approach to prevent hypertension: a review of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Study. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(7 Suppl):III6–10 [review].
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